Fluid Bed Dryer: The Ultimate Guide
We analyzed 113 different designs of fluid bed dryers to understand new innovations in the fluidized bed industry.
Our focus was on design, working principle, specification and advancement in technology, among other critical aspects of fluidized bed dryer (FBD).
Today’s guide focuses on very interesting findings you need to know.
It will help you boost efficiency in granules and powder drying processes.
Let me show you how to optimize your material processing needs.
- What is a Fluid Bed Dryer?
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Fluid Bed Dryer
- Classification of Fluidized Bed Dryers
- Fluid Bed Dryer Parts – What Makes Up FBD System?
- Factors Affecting Fluid Bed Drying Process
- Fluidized Bed Dryer Working Principle
- Fluid Bed Dryer Specification
- Troubleshooting Fluid Bed Dryer
- Fluid Bed Dryer Applications
- SaintyCo, Your Trusted Fluid Bed Dryer Manufacturer
What is a Fluid Bed Dryer?
A fluid bed dryer, also named fluidized bed dryer is an assembly of systems for drying material in the pharmaceutical industry.
Implying, by using FBD equipment, you can achieve a suitable moisture content in either powders or granules.
Although there are many designs out there as you will see in this guide, below is an example of fluid bed dryer equipment.
Fluid bed dryer – Photo courtesy: SaintyCo
Here is yet another design:
Fluid bed dryer – Photo courtesy: DAHMES
Of course, this is simply an overall structure of how a fluid bed drying system looks like.
Don’t worry – shortly, you’ll learn every aspect of fluid bed drying system.
But first, let’s make something clear.
Throughout our research, people could also refer to the FBD system as fluid bed processor.
Well, that’s correct.
However, the term fluid bed processor refers to material processing machines using the fluidization principle.
(You’ll learn more about the principle of fluidization later in this guide.)
Pharmaceutical equipment that uses fluidization principle are:
i. Fluid bed dryer (which we will discuss extensively in this guide)
ii. A fluid bed granulator and coater
iii. Fluid bed granulator
iv. Fluid bed dryer, granulator, and coater
In case you want to learn more about these machines, follow this link: Fluid Bed Processors.
When and why should you choose a fluid bed dryer system?
And, when should you choose another material drying method?
This is quite important if you want to improve the quality of your material drying process.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Fluid Bed Dryer
Do you know fluid bed drying is a popular material processing technique in the pharmaceutical industry?
Of course, it is due to the many advantages of this equipment.
However, there are instances where you will look for other alternative ways of drying material.
For the scope of this section, you’re going to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of a fluid bed dryer.
Let’s dive right in:
Advantages of Fluid Bed Dryer
Here are some of the reasons why you should use a fluid bed drying equipment:
i. Offers a faster drying alternative – it takes about 20 to 40 minutes, depending on the material property.
ii. More thermally efficient than tray drying
iii. Suitable for both batch and continuous drying
iv. No hot spots on products
v. Low maintenance cost
vi. Best for heat sensitive or thermolabile material
vii. A fully automatic system, hence easy to control and handle
viii. Guarantees homogeneous drying
However, this does not imply that the fluidized bed drying technique is perfect for all your material processing needs.
It has some drawbacks as you will see in a moment.
Disadvantages of Fluid Bed Dryer
Some of the main disadvantages of fluidized bed drying process include:
i. Turbulence during the fluidization process may cause attrition. To prevent this phenomenon, use the recommended binding agent.
ii. Requires advanced gas handling system
iii. Electrostatic charges may develop during the drying process. A reason why you should earth the fluidized drying system.
iv. A high-pressure drop may lead to high energy consumption
v. Not suitable for toxic solids and sticky material
With all these in mind, let’s look at another critical aspect of FBD.
Classification of Fluidized Bed Dryers
Of all the 113 fluid bed dryer designs analyzed, we can classify them into the following main categories:
- Batch fluidized bed dryers
- Continuous fluidized dryers
- Semi-continuous fluidized bed dryers
Apart from these, a fluid bed dryer design can also be:
- Vertical fluidized bed dryer
- Horizontal fluidized bed dryer
And, this also leads us to yet another important classification in FBD industry.
That is, you can refer to these systems as either:
- Conventional fluid bed dryers or,
- Modified fluid bed dryers
So, what’s the difference here?
Fluid bed dryer system
Now, let’s take a close look at some of these fluid bed dryer designs.
Through the next sections of this discussion, you will realize we may combine some of these FBD options.
Take for example:
Batch Type Vertical Fluid Bed Dryer
As you can see, these types of fluid bed dryers combine two attributes.
That is the batch and vertical aspects.
Well, it is a common fluid bed dryer in the pharmaceutical industry.
But, what’s so unique about it?
Depending on the design of batch type vertical fluid bed dryer, you may have:
a) Reverse turning bed fluidized system
Here, you have the ability to turn a gas dispersion plate to 90 degrees using the FBD motor.
By doing so, the system will discharge powder or granules.
b) Rotating discharge FBD
This FBD has a discharge gate on one side of the dryer system.
Of course, it is due to the whirling of gas via the perforated plate (it acts as a gas dispersion plate).
It is this gas that pushes dried material from the discharge gate.
Batch fluid bed dryer
Now, what’s unique about these types of fluid bed dryers?
- Easier to automate more so when it comes to feeding and discharging material, among other functionalities.
- You can achieve uniform drying by controlling the residence time distribution (RTD).
- Best for crystallized or granular material
- A perfect choice where accurate control is a priority.
From our study, the construction of these types of fluidized bed dryers may vary from one manufacturer to another.
Implying, it will be virtually impossible to discuss the construction of each and every machine here.
However, later in this guide, you will learn about the various parts of FBD systems.
At the moment, let’s look at yet another fluid bed dryer design.
Continuous Type Horizontal Fluid Bed Dryer
Again, when it comes to this type of fluid bed dryer, you can consider many options such as:
- Horizontal FBD
- Vibrating FBD
Essentially, many fluid bed dryer manufacturers have been modifying their machines to meet certain application requirements.
Before the end of this section, you will also learn about conventional fluidized bed dryers and modified fluidized bed dryers.
For now, let’s explore more about continuous fluid bed dryer.
Let’s have a look at the cross-section of a continuous fluid bed dryer:
Continuous fluid bed dryer
Below are a few aspects you should know about continuous fluid bed dryer:
- It supplies between 60 to 80% of drying heat
- For vibrating conveyor fluidized bed dryer, the residence time depends on the amplitude and frequency of vibration
- Residence time depends on the length of the drying zone
- Both heat transfer plate and tube are built within the equipment
- Can handle material with high moisture content
- Suitable for both crystalline and granules
With the continuous fluid bed drying systems, material flow over a perforated bed.
Through this bed, machine blows air to achieve the fluidization process.
In continuous fluid bed dryer, the material is dried in one section.
Then, cooling takes place in the second section.
Don’t worry; you’ll learn more about the working principle of this machine later in this guide.
Just stay here if you want to optimize your material processing needs.
Semi-Continuous Fluid Bed Dryers
Semi-continuous fluid bed dryers are common in today’s material processing.
These FBDs tend to combine features of batch FBD and continuous FBD.
Although they feature several drying chambers that work in parallel, the FBDs have one main limitation.
They do not reduce the possibility of wastages.
This is why you will find batch FBD and continuous FBD as the most common options.
Quite frankly, there is a high volume of material remains in the semi-continuous fluid bed dryer chambers.
Semi-continuous fluid bed dryer –Photo courtesy: Pharma Approach
Broadly, we have three main types of fluidized bed dryers.
Remember, we classify batch, continuous and semi-continuous FBD as conventional fluid bed dryers.
However, depending on specific application requirements, fluid bed dryer manufacturers may decide to modify their equipment.
And this leads us to yet another classification called modified fluidized bed dryers.
Remember, fluid bed dryer is popular in the pharmaceutical industry.
However, they can be modified to suit specific application needs in other industries.
For the scope of this guide, I’ll only mention the various options available.
i. Hybrid FBD
ii. Pulsating FBD
iii. Spouted bed dryer
iv. Swirl fluidizers
v. Jetting fluidized bed dryer
vi. Fluidized bed freeze dryer
vii. Fluidized bed dryers of inert particles
viii. Recirculating fluidized bed dryer
Others may have special features such as:
- Immersed heat exchanger
- Mechanically assisted system
- Vibration system
- Heat pump
- Superheated steam
As you can see, you have many options to choose from.
Before you buy a fluid bed dryer model, talk to the manufacturer about your intentions.
And this leads us to yet another critical segment.
Remember, a fluid bed dryer depends on:
- Excellent mixing
- Gas dispersion, and
- Heat exchange, to reduce the quantity of moisture in a material.
Implying, all these systems must coordinate to produce desired results.
In short, what does this imply?
A fluid bed dryer is an assembly of parts or components, coordinating together to remove moisture in powder or granules.
Let’s break this down.
Fluid Bed Dryer Parts – What Makes Up FBD System?
For a fact, FBD has thousands of parts that vary from one machine to another.
However, for the scope of this section, the focus will be on the main parts.
It is these parts that coordinate to ensure the fluid bed dryer principle is a success.
Let’s list some of these parts and components:
i. Product container
ii. Air preparation unit
iii. Control panel
iv. Air distribution plate
v. Exhaust filter
vi. Exhaust blower
vii. Spray nozzle
viii. Solution delivery
Each of these parts plays different roles in the fluidized drying system.
Also, the exact location of these parts varies from one fluid bed dryer brand to another.
Let’s have a quick look at some of the available options.
And, as you study the images, please note the variations.
Parts of fluid bed dryer by SaintyCo
Apart from this fluid bed dryer design, let’s take a close look at this second option:
Parts of fluid bed dryer by GEA Group
And, here is the third option:
Parts of Fluid bed dryer by Unique Group
Now, look at our fourth design:
Parts of fluid bed dryer
As you can see from the examples above, the exact location of these parts varies from one fluidized bed dryer to another.
Furthermore, some FBD machines have more parts than others.
As stated earlier, the FBD manufacturer may modify these machines to suit their unique application requirements.
In short, always request for the user manual to know the exact location of fluid bed dryer parts.
Of course, I cannot share all the images of the over 133 fluid bed dryer designs we analyzed.
Remember, each of these parts plays an integral role in the successful fluid bed drying process.
And, I will explore more on their functions, as we study the working principle of the fluid bed dryer machine.
At the moment, let’s fast evaluate parameters that affect the fluidized bed drying process.
Factors Affecting Fluid Bed Drying Process
Fluid bed drying is a systematic process that depends on many factors.
Therefore, it is important you know these parameters before looking at how a fluid bed dryer actually works.
Of course, the information you’ll learn here applies to nearly all brands of fluidized bed dryer systems.
Fluid bed dryer
In the fluidized bed drying process, there are three key aspects that determine the quality of the end product.
i. Process parameters
ii. Equipment parameters
iii. Material or product parameters
Let’s look at each of these factors in details.
Remember, by understanding these three key elements, you can easily optimize your fluidized bed drying process.
Let’s take a look:
Process Parameters – How they Affect Fluid Bed Drying Process
Unlike other drying systems, the process involves the fluidization technique.
(We’ll discuss the fluidization process shortly).
However, even before we get to that, there are certain process parameters you need to know.
Some of these process parameters include:
a) Operating temperature
Temperature is an important parameter in any form of drying technique.
That also applies to FBD.
Why should this be an important aspect?
Remember, the rate of drying increases with an increase in temperature of the inlet air (and, vice versa).
That is, it increases moisture diffusivity.
However, there are some products which are temperature sensitive.
Implying, an increase in temperature may cause significant damage or change in material composition.
Also, very low temperature may cause a soft spot.
Probably, you’re wondering – what’s the right temperature now?
It’s simple – You must understand the properties of products you’re dealing with.
For a faster drying rate, ensure moisture of the incoming air is at a minimum.
Implying, you should use dehumidified air for a faster drying rate.
c) Air Velocity
You should maintain the air velocity an optimum rate for efficient drying.
Although, increasing air velocity will obviously speed up drying rate, but to a certain limit.
Air flow rate
Remember, the fluidization process takes place at different velocities.
And this results in different types of bed as you can see below.
|Status of approach fluid velocity (VO)
|Type of bed formed
|Vo ≥ Ut
The symbols in the table above imply:
i. Vo – superficial velocity or approach velocity
ii. Ut – particle terminal velocity
iii. Vmf – minimized fluidized velocity
Let’s explore yet another critical aspect that determines the fluid bed drying process.
These are inherent features of FBD affecting the actual process.
They are mainly to do with the design. You could see this clearly in the fluid bed dryer design.
Also, it was quite evident when discussing the types of fluid bed dryers and now the vital parts.
What are the equipment parameters that affect the fluidization process?
a) Distribution plate
From the previous discussion, the location of the distribution plate varies from one machine to another.
Implying, fluid bed dryer manufacturer must establish a suitable section that will optimize the drying process.
Remember, the distribution plate will determine how air flows in the system.
Of course, this will determine the drying process.
b) Shape of the FBD
Again, from our previous discussion, it is quite clear that fluidized bed dryer systems come in different shapes and designs.
As a general rule, an annular base design guarantees better fluidization process.
This does not imply other shapes are bad – NO.
Ensure you discuss this with your manufacturer to establish the efficiency of their FBD.
You should choose an FBD that can operate in both positive and negative pressures.
Position and height of the nozzle are important when you have a multi-purpose fluid bed processor.
It is a critical aspect when you wish to use a fluid bed processor for drying, granulation or coating.
However, that discussion is beyond the scope of our discussion today.
In case you’re interested, this is how such fluid bed systems look like:
Fluid bed processor
With that in mind, let’s have a quick overview of yet another critical aspect:
Material or Product Parameters
In any fluidized bed drying process, you must know the kind of product you’re dealing with.
By doing so, you will optimize all your operations easily.
So, what exactly should you consider?
a) Moisture content
High moisture content implies the drying time will be higher.
So, ensure the moisture content is not very high.
b) Nature of the product
You should consider particle size, shape or even diameter.
Choose a product that can easily be fluidized.
Normally, a fluidized bed drying process is suitable for powder and granules.
c) Batch size
If you want to optimize the drying process, the quantity must not exceed the maximum capacity of the FBD.
Once you understand all these parameters, it will be easier to profit from your fluid bed drying systems.
Having said that, let’s look at how fluid bed dryer works.
Fluidized Bed Dryer Working Principle
Although fluid bed dryer manufacturers keep adding new features to their equipment, the working principle is virtually the same.
The bottom line – How a fluid bed dryer works still depend on the fluidization principle or process.
Of course, it is irrespective of the fluid bed dryer designs.
Even the fluid bed dryer parts are modified to ensure efficient fluidization process.
Like most newbies in the industry – probably you’re wondering:
What is Fluidization Process?
Have a look at this:
Different stages in the fluidization process
Furthermore, I want you to watch the video below.
It will help you understand the fluidized bed dryer working principle.
The video is courtesy of Glatt.
With that overview, let’s quickly look at some fundamental aspects of the fluidization process.
Now – What is fluidization process?
It is a process where powder or granules change from a static solid state to dynamic fluid-like state.
Basically, the solid particles are suspended in the air.
You can see that in figure 14 above.
How is this possible?
In fluidization, gas flows into a bed of particles – in this case, powder or granules.
As the gas flows, its velocity should be:
- Greater than settling velocity of granules or powder
- Less than terminal velocity for a pneumatic conveyor
- Equal to a minimum velocity of fluidization
I hope you remember our earlier discussion on how system parameters affect the fluid bed drying process.
As a quick reminder, you can review figure 12 and the table just below it.
Now, let’s continue with our discussion.
Once the systems meet the above conditions (No. 1 to 3), the gas overcomes the gravitational pull, thereby suspending powder or granules in the air.
As a result, the entire system will behave like a gas.
It is at this point that we say the bed or system has been fluidized.
With this, you can now figure out how fluid bed dryer works.
In fact, there’s a little modification to achieve the drying process.
Let’s quickly go through the fluidized bed dryer working principle:
How Fluid Bed Dryer Works
As I said, there are many fluid bed dryer equipment available in the market today.
However, for the scope of our discussion, the focus will be on:
i. Batch type fluid bed dryer
ii. Continuous type of fluid bed dryer
As you will see shortly, the process is simple and straight forward.
But first, let’s have a general overview of what takes place in this system:
- Fluid bed dryer sucks in air from the surrounding environment. Most FBDs have a fan that sucks this air.
Of course for the fan to rotate, the FBD must have an efficient electric motor.
Remember, when the air comes into the system, it is relatively cold.
Even in situations where the air is warm, it is not enough to dry material.
- Next, air passes through a heating system. All fluidized bed dryers have heating systems as part of their assembly.
The choice of a heating system will depend on the fluid bed dryer manufacturer design options.
- Once air acquires a suitable temperature, it flows through the bed (where there is material you want to dry).
- Here, there are two things that play an important role – air temperature and speed. A good fluid bed dryer should allow users to control both the air temperature and speed.
Basically, in casethe air is overheated, it should have an option for cooling.
- Once you introduce heated air with a suitable velocity into the bed, the system will get fluidized. Do you remember our earlier discussion?
As hot air flows through the bed and suspends material, it “sucks” moisture present in the particles.
- Heated air will then flow into the recovery chamber where it can be recycled.
Also, this will depend on whether your fluidized bed dryer has the capacity to recycle this air.
- Next, depending on the fluid bed dryer design, it can cool material within the same bed. Alternatively, the material will flow to the cooling zone.
Simply put – this is how fluid bed dryer works.
But, what’s the difference between batch types fluidized bed dryer and continuous type fluidized bed dryer?
I’ll explain that shortly.
Fluid bed dryer
a) Batch Type Fluidized Bed Dryer
In batch fluid bed technology, the heated gas enters the system from the bottom of the FBD.
Here, their design features a perforated disc.
As the name suggests, everything including material feeding, drying and discharging take place in batches.
The system looks like this:
Fluid bed drying system
In batch type fluidized bed dryers, the machine uses two mechanisms to discharge materials:
i. Discharging material from the wall of the fluid bed dryer using a centrifuge stream. Here, the FDB depends on the direction type perforated plate.
ii. Discharging material into a bottom hopper as perforated plate rotates.
b) Continuous Types Fluidized Bed Dryer
Unlike the batch type DBD, continuous fluid bed technology for drying material features this design:
Continuous fluid bed dryer
What’s unique about this fluid bed technology?
Here, a perforated plate uniformly disperses heated air, which causes fluidization and subsequently dries material.
Like the name suggests, material moves from one drying chamber to another.
From our study, continuous type fluidized bed dryer comes in different shapes more so, when it comes to the chamber design.
But, one thing still remains similar.
The FBD continuously dries material and leaves the system with the right moisture content (drying depends on requirements).
Also, it may feature different heat transfer systems or units.
Before you purchase a fluidized bed dryer system, talk to your manufacturer to evaluate the possibility or options on how to optimize this process.
In fact, it is a better way of knowing whether the manufacturer has new features that can improve performance and reliability.
Well, it is even important to focus on the specifications of your machine.
What amount of power does it require?
How about the dimensions – what’s the exact size of the FBD?
Well, the next section captures yet another fundamental aspect.
Let’s dive right in:
Fluid Bed Dryer Specification
First, product specification is an important parameter.
Through this, you can know whether the machine meets your unique material processing needs or not.
As a general rule, before you buy a fluid bed dryer machine, always request for the user manual or brochure.
Through this, you will know every critical aspect of the FBD machine.
Here is a good example:
SaintyCo fluid bed dryer
SaintyCo fluid bed dryer technical specification
Let me give you another example of a fluid bed processor, with drying functionality.
Fluid bed processor with drying functionality
Fluid bed processor with drying functionality
Clearly, you can see the fluid bed dryer technical specification varies from one machine to another.
It is the reason why you should always ask for a user manual or technical specification.
Through this document, you will tell whether the machine is suitable for your unique applications or not.
Apart from this, there is yet another important thing you need to know.
This is the fluid bed dryer user requirement specification (URS).
Let me give you a brief summary of what you should expect:
Fluid Bed Dryer URS
Fluid Bed Dryer, User Requirement Specification, is a must-have document.
It provides a list of all requirements you need for the FBD.
Basically, it will stipulate all the needs of the end user, alongside all possible regulatory requirements.
Remember, you will use fluid bed dryer URS as a benchmark when making quotations.
Therefore, the fluid bed dryer URS should capture all the essential aspects of the machine.
By doing so, you’ll avoid possible miscommunication.
Basically, a good Fluid Bed Dryer URS should include:
i. Approval section
ii. Introduction – here, the main focus should purpose, scope, general description, and validation plan.
iii. Overview – the area of focus should include use, capacity, the range of product, loss of dryness, etc.
iv. Machine specification – key elements include operation, utility requirement, main physical data, material construction, cleaning, safety, maintenance, and spare parts.
v. Plans and documents
vi. Samples of materials for tests
viii. Factory acceptance tests
ix. Site acceptance test, commissioning, validation, and training of owner personnel
x. Quality standards documents
xi. Export packaging, delivery FOB, insurance and protection
Making Fluid bed dryer, URS can be a tedious task.
That’s why we are here to help you – Contact SaintyCo today for free consultations.
Having said all that, let’s have a quick look at some of the possible challenges you may face when using FBD.
Troubleshooting Fluid Bed Dryer
As you have seen, a fluidized bed drying process is simple and straightforward.
You can simplify it as:
Fluid bed drying process
However, the process may not be that simple.
At times, you may face challenges with the equipment, material or the process itself.
When it comes to fluid bed dryer machine, you can refer to the user manual.
It highlights all the possible problems that you may encounter.
Let’s look at some of the most common problems and how to solve them:
· Product degrading
Mostly, this is due to high temperature.
Consequently, you need to distribute the particles and lower the temperature.
Remember, you must know the recommended drying temperature for every material you want to process in the FBD.
· High drying time than normal
It is due to high moisture content in the material.
Here, you may pre-dry or adopt twice drying technique.
· Particle reduces in size
It is mainly due to high residence time.
Therefore, the solution is quite simple, reduce residence time.
· A dried product having high moisture content
This is due to internal diffusion of particles, and you can solve the problem by reducing residence time.
· Particle does not fluidize
In the case of powders, it can be due to electrostatic charge.
Therefore, you should efficiently earth the fluid bed dryer system.
· Shrinkage of the surface
The high temperature will cause surface shrinkage.
To solve this, you must “balance” the temperature.
So basically, know the temperature requirements for the product you’re drying.
In short, these are some of the most common problems you will encounter when using FBD.
With that, let’s move to yet another crucial segment of this guide.
Fluid Bed Dryer Applications
Well, I’ll be very quick here.
Throughout this article, it is quite evident that you need FDB for drying applications.
Fluid bed processor
Anyway, let me list some of the most common applications of the fluid bed dryer.
i. Pharmaceutical industry for drying powders and granules
ii. Food processing industry
iii. Plastic making industry
iv. Fertilizer manufacturing industry
v. Drying coal, and many other industries.
In short, you can dry powder, granules or pellets of virtually any product.
As long as it meets the necessary fluidized bed dryer requirements.
However, for multi-purpose fluid bed processors, you can use such equipment for granulation and coating.
At this point, we have covered all critical aspects you would wish to know about the fluid bed processor.
But, you could be having one of the biggest challenges.
Where can you find a fluid bed dryer manufacturer?
Here is my recommendation.
SaintyCo, Your Trusted Fluid Bed Dryer Manufacturer
It would be unfair to take you through everything without recommending a fluid bed dryer manufacturer.
For decades, SaintyCo has been designing and manufacturing fluid bed processor equipment.
SaintyCo fluid bed dryers are carefully designed and optimized to meet the dynamic needs of material processing in the pharmaceutical industry.
Whether you’re looking for:
- Lab fluid bed dryers
- High capacity fluid bed dryer
- Multi-functional fluid bed dryer – with the ability to granulate and coat
SaintyCo offers a perfect solution for your dynamic needs in pharmaceutical material processing.
Among the main material processing SaintyCo offers under this category include:
In short, SaintyCo offers a one-stop-solution for all your material drying needs.
All fluid bed dryers comply with the cGMP and CE standards.
Besides, they come in both standard and custom designs, depending on the specific material processing needs.
Follow this link to learn more about SaintyCo Fluid Bed Processors.
Throughout this guide, it is quite clear that fluid bed dryer plays an integral role in material processing.
It’s also evident that a fluidized bed dryer is high-tech equipment that comes in different shapes and designs.
More importantly, you need to evaluate every aspect of the FBD, from equipment to product parameters for a reliable drying process.
Fortunately, today’s guide captures everything you need to know about fluid bed dryers.
It gives you an opportunity to analyze everything of a fluid bed dryer.
And, now I would like to hear from you too:
What’s your favorite fluid bed dryer model?
Or, what challenges are you facing with your FBD?
Well, feel free to share your experience below or through an email.
- Fluidized Bed Dryer – Sources: Pharmaapproach
- Fluidized Bed Dryers – Source: Slideshare by Allauddin
- Fluidized Bed Working Principle – Source: Pharmaceutical Guidelines
- Introduction to Fluidization – Source: University of Florida
- Fluid Bed Drying (Design Considerations) – Source: Research Gate
- Fluid Bed Dryer vs. Conventional Dryers – Source: Academia
- A Study of Efficient Drying Parameters for Bed Dryers – Source: California State University
- Introduction to Fluidization – Source: Particulate Solid Research Inc.