Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine: The Ultimate FAQ Guide
I know you’re probably looking for an efficient small scale chocolate making machine.
A reason this guide will answer all questions you have been asking about these chocolate production line.
Whether you want to learn about the working principle, type of machine, features, or how to optimize the production process – you will find all information right here.
What Is Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Small-Scale Chocolate Machine
It is equipment that you will use to prepare cocoa beans to mold the final chocolate.
It will handle all the functions starting from the raw ingredients to the final chocolate output ready for consumption.
These machines have a design that makes them suitable for small-scale businesses.
Besides being small, they are efficient, reliable, and offer production capacities suitable for small industries.
Is The Operation Principle Of Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine Different From Industrial Chocolate Making Machine?
These machines have the same operational principle when it comes to processing raw ingredients and producing chocolate.
The main difference lies in their production capacity, size, cost, and some features.
How Does Investing In Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine Benefit Your Confectionery Business?
There are different types of small-scale chocolate-making machines that will enhance your production.
Besides, a small-scale chocolate-making machine will offer you a myriad of benefits.
A small-scale chocolate-making machine will enable you to make the best use of the raw ingredients with less wastage.
Besides, it will save you on the number of laborers you need for your production plant.
Also, you can easily control and monitor the machine, which further enhances productivity.
The small-scale chocolate-making machine can enable you to increase your production without increasing your costs.
When you use manual chocolate-making methods, you will use a lot of time, yet the production will still below.
On the contrary, small-scale chocolate-making machines will process and produce more chocolates per unit time.
When you are producing chocolate for human consumption, you need to maintain the quality of the product.
Otherwise, customers will take note of the loss in quality and not purchase your products.
Small-scale chocolate-making machines will enable you to maintain high levels of accuracy as the device operates consistently.
It means that you can perform several chocolate productions using this machine and have similar results.
The machine will ensure it is accurate when it comes to mixing ingredients and molding the final chocolate.
Ease Of Operation
A small-scale chocolate-making machine is simple to operate as it comes with different levels of automation.
It will enable you to produce a variety of chocolate products with ease.
The mechanical structure of the machine will make you accomplish the different chocolate-making stages.
If you have a small work area for the installation of the machine, you need not worry.
These machines will easily fit the available work area, meaning you will not need to upgrade your space.
They also come in various sizes. Thus, you will always find one that works best for you.
Increase In Output
When making one piece of chocolate is low, this means your production capacity will increase.
This machine will enable you to accomplish various chocolate-making processes with ease.
Also, they have a high production capacity than manual chocolate-making processes.
Lower Recurring Costs
By using a small-scale chocolate-making machine, you will save money as the overall cost will below.
Some costs you will reduce are the cost of hiring operators. For instance, you choose manual chocolate-making processes.
Since they come with some level of automation, you will need fewer operators.
Control Your Production Capacity
The production capacity of a small-scale chocolate-making machine will vary from one machine to another.
It allows you to alter the capacity you can produce at a certain time to match client demands.
Thereby, you will end up using your machine efficiently and lower wastage.
Since the machine handles all the chocolate-making processes, there is little leeway for contamination to happen.
Just make sure the machine is clean before beginning the chocolate-making process.
Also, since there is no physical handling of the chocolate at any stage, you lower the chances of contamination.
The machine also makes use of durable, easy to clean, corrosion-resistant, high-quality stainless steel construction.
Since these machines have a small footprint, they tend to consume less energy.
It will save you more money when it comes to electricity bills.
These machines conform to quality standards set by international bodies.
It means you will always be on the right side with the law.
Also, it ensures that the machine can make products safe for human consumption using the best manufacturing practices.
It also will save you from being sued as the machine ensures high production levels at all stages.
These machines come with safety features that will protect you from any hazards.
Also, when there is any malfunction, the machine will send you the information for you to react.
An example of a safety feature includes sensors that detect and reject low-quality products.
Which Features Should Look For In Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Some important features you should consider during selection are:
The chocolate-making speed of a specific small-scale chocolate-making machine will determine its working rate.
It’s vital when you are determining the workload that the machine can comfortably handle.
The production output you are aspiring to have should influence the small-scale chocolate-making machine you purchase.
Configuration Of The Machine
Here, you will check both the weight and the size of the machine.
The work area you have available will determine the kind of chocolate-making machine you will purchase.
Also, check how accessible the parts are since they are vital for maintenance and repairs.
Make sure the energy consumption of the chocolate-making machine matches the production efficiency.
High power consumption will increase your overall production cost.
The best small-scale chocolate-making machine needs to have adequate safety features.
It will apply to the chocolate-making process and the operators as well.
For instance, the operator needs to have a specific section where they can control the machine.
Also, safety features will minimize production wastage at all stages and keep the operation safe.
The market has both semi-automatic and fully automatic versions.
Depending on your production requirements, you need to select a machine that best suits you.
Fully automatic machines cost more but are more efficient and fast than semi-automatic versions.
Make sure the small-scale chocolate-making machine complies with both domestic and international quality standards.
Conformity with these standards guarantees a high-quality, safe, reliable, and durable chocolate-making machine.
Some of these quality standards include cGMP, RoHS, and CE.
Full Automatic PLC Control
A programmable logic controller allows you to control various aspects of the small-scale chocolate-making machine.
It includes mixing, tempering, packaging, etc., thereby automatically handling the entire process.
Touch Screen Functionality
When you have a touchscreen, it will be easy for you to monitor and input production parameters.
Also, this means the interactive interface allows you to adjust and store the production processes.
It allows you to repeat the same production process with no fuss easily.
It’s a feature that ensures the machine operates with minimal errors.
Also, it is beneficial since you will not undergo any wastage at any stage of the production process.
Besides, the machine will use all the raw materials that it needs to make chocolate.
Ensure the machine makes use of high-quality food-grade stainless steel material.
It makes sure the chocolate will not face contamination anywhere in the production stage.
Besides, stainless steel is durable and hygienic, thus maintains high production levels.
Does Small-Scale Chocolate Make Machine Come As Standalone Equipment or Production Line?
Chocolate production line
The small-scale chocolate-making machine exists as a production line.
It is because there are numerous chocolate-making processes that the raw materials have to pass.
All these processes are vital to making the perfect chocolate.
Factor in mind that the machine comes with panning, tempering, enrobing, and packaging features, among others.
All these components have a specific task to accomplish in the chocolate-making process.
Can Small Chocolate Making Machine Process All Types of Chocolate Products?
This machine is well capable of processing different types of chocolate products.
For instance, you can process the following:
- Dark chocolate
- Milk chocolate
- Bittersweet chocolate
- White chocolate
- Semi-sweet chocolate, among others.
Which Other Equipment Do You Need Alongside Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Some of the machines or equipment that you may need are:
Chocolate Coating Machine
The other name of this machine is the chocolate enrober.
This machine will coat different products with a uniform and solid layer of chocolate.
Besides, small-scale chocolate coating machines increase the flavor of everyday food items.
Examples of food items it may coat include cakes, biscuits, nuts, cakes, candy, etc.
Some of the functions of a chocolate coating machine include:
- It will assist in masking the taste and odor of various kinds of food
- Also, it will enhance the structure and texture of multiple products
- The machine will add extra flavor to otherwise bland foodstuff
- It will also increase the shelf life and the durability of these products
- The machine will also assist in making these food items more palatable
- Besides, small-scale pharmaceutical industries may use this machine to coat different types of medicines.
Chocolate Coating Machine
Chocolate Packaging Machine
It’s a machine that you will place wrapped chocolate products in a secondary package.
It assists in storing chocolate products.
Some of the functions of a small-scale chocolate packaging machine include:
- It ensures accurate packaging of chocolate products
- Also, it increases the chocolate products you can pack per unit time in comparison to manual packing
- It will enhance the hygiene of the chocolate products since the package will keep off the contaminant
- A small-scale chocolate packaging machine will increase the appeal of the chocolate products
- The machine can also package other kinds of products in the production line
Chocolate Panning Machine
It is an electromechanical machine that will coat different food items with chocolate.
It uses a rotating drum to coat the products forming an organic film or an aqueous film.
Besides, you can use a small-scale chocolate panning machine in both the confectionery and pharmaceutical industries.
Small-scale confectionery industries will use it to coat items such as:
- Dried nuts, etc.
Small-scale pharmaceutical industries will use it to coat items such as:
- Medicinal cookies
Chocolate panning machine
Chocolate Tempering Machine
Chocolate tempering machine
This machine will heat and cool the chocolate to stabilize it and give it a smooth and glossy finish.
Some benefits of using a small-scale chocolate tempering machine are:
- It will make the chocolate bloom-resistant.
- The machine makes the chocolate have a good contraction.
- Also, it will balance the texture within the chocolate, thus make it have a smooth and shiny appearance.
- The machine will make the chocolate product unmold with ease.
Chocolate Dipping Machine
This small-scale machine is an electromechanical device that will dip varying food items in liquid chocolate.
The machine will assist in increasing the overall appeal of the product.
It operates by first melting the chocolate ingredients then applying the liquid chocolate to food products.
That means you will place solid chunks of chocolate in the machine then the machine will melt them.
It will also maintain the temperature of the melted chocolate, thereby making it easy to use when the need arises.
Chocolate dipping machine
Chocolate Filling Machine
The filling is a machine that you will use to fill thick chocolate in a container or bottle.
It is ideal for packaging chocolate products as it has several components that assist with this operation.
Some of the features that assist in chocolate filling include:
- Dosing mechanism
- Integrated heating systems
- Automatic mixing systems
- Drop sized valves
- Capping and labeling capabilities
Chocolate Filling Machine
Chocolate Grinding Machine
This small-scale machine will convert roasted cocoa ingredients to a thick oily paste.
It does this by using two revolving granite rollers that are on top of revolving granite slabs.
The intense action by the heavy rollers will tear across the slabs.
This rotating motion tears the cocoa beans changing them into a liquid state.
Also, the machine will apply heat to enhance liquefaction resulting in the formation of cocoa.
Therefore, this machine is a vital component when making chocolate products.
Chocolate Grinding Machine
What Are The Disadvantages Of Manual Small-Scale Chocolate Processing Equipment?
There are several disadvantages to using manual small-scale chocolate processing machines.
Low Production Capacity
Manual small-scale chocolate processing machines can only produce as much as the operators work. It means if there are no workers, the machine cannot process any chocolate.
The machines cannot operate if there are no operators.
Besides, if you need a high production capacity, you need to hire several laborers.
Long Production Times
Laborers can only work at a certain speed, which may take you long to process a small batch of chocolate.
Thereby you will not be able to meet high demands within a short period.
Need For Training
For your staff to operate these machines, they need to undergo training. Otherwise, they may make errors.
It means you need to spend extra time training, so they understand how to operate the machine.
By hiring laborers, you will spend more on their salary and other costs like insurance.
It will affect your bottom line, and you may realize minimal profits.
Possibility Of Contamination
Since you need laborers, there may be times when they may contaminate the product without knowing.
It will affect the quality of the final chocolate product.
Since you need laborers to operate this machine, the consistency will not always be the same.
It’s because several factors may affect the performance of an individual.
Which Is Better Between Semi-Automatic Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine Vs. Fully Automatic Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Both of these machines are capable of processing different chocolate products.
Besides, fully automatic are better than semi-automatic small-scale chocolate-making machines.
It is because the fully automatic versions will need minimal operators during the chocolate-making processes.
The machine will perform all the tasks by itself.
These include mixing, depositing, cooling, coating, molding, and wrapping since it has automatic controls.
The machine will use sensors and a programmable logic controller that enhance the chocolate-making process.
Besides, you will need the operator to only input the processing parameters before starting the machine.
Also, these machines will offer you a higher production capacity, reliability, and efficiency.
However, they are costly, but the benefits are more than the disadvantages.
The machine will also lower your recurring costs, thus profitable in the long run.
What Are The Major Parts Of Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
There are several parts that you can find in small-scale chocolate-making machines.
Some of these components include:
This part houses all electrical systems that assist in providing power to the machine.
It is a rigid and durable component that holds all the features of the machine together.
The main purpose is to heat and mix the ingredients to achieve pre-crystallization at specific temperatures.
Molds enable you to form chocolate in various shapes and sizes.
The mold loader will make it possible for you to swap between these changes.
Pipe systems enable you to transfer the chocolate ingredients after mixing and cooking.
Chocolate And Granule Mixing System
This component facilitates the mixing of various ingredients effectively and efficiently.
This part will enhance the transportation of mold plates and the setting of the product.
It will vibrate at varying frequencies depending on the characteristics of the mold.
This part enables you to release the material mix within the mold for purposes of solidification.
Besides, you can also place additional items in the chocolate, such as nuts.
This part has a PLC and an HMI system with an interactive control mechanism.
It will allow you to input and monitor the chocolate-making process all from a single station.
This part will make sure chocolate molds cool into a solid, readying them for packaging.
It will deposit granules in the molds, thus resulting in a consistent and rough appearance as per your specifications.
This system has parts and strategies that will power the movement of items in the machine.
It contains gears, hydraulic units, conveyor belts, which assist in transporting items from one area to another.
This component ensures that both you and the machine are safe.
It also ensures the final product is fit for human consumption with no contamination or low quality.
For instance, sensors will detect and reject low-quality products.
It also sounds an alarm or sends data to the control panel for you to act on promptly.
This part will assist in relaying the chocolate molds to other chocolate-making processes from the cooling tunnel.
Which Is The Best Type Of Conveyor Belt To Use In The Transport System Of The Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Conveyor belts are a vital component in the small-scale chocolate-making machine since they transport items from one area to another.
For example, the cooling belt transports chocolates through the cooling tunnels in the production process.
These belts have a non-stick feature making them suitable for small-scale chocolate-making machines.
Also, some are non-adherent, and they have a gluey dough which makes them extremely resistant.
Here are some of the best conveyor belts you can use in a small chocolate-making machine:
Thermoplastic Polyurethane Belts
This belt has non-stick impermeable capabilities making them suitable for transferring and positioning chocolates.
Their construction makes it possible to lower the buildup of chocolates on the lower side of the product.
Also, they can withstand low temperatures and shard-edged configurations.
Common Polyurethane Belts
This belt can work with varying covers that are glossy, matt, or embossed.
Besides, they are resistant to fats and oils, thus able to maintain high hygiene standards.
Since they have high resistance to abrasion and cracks, you can use them in scenes whose edges are sharp.
Also, common polyurethane belts can work in varying belt configurations.
This belt comes with a food-grade certification.
This capability will offer resistance to substances such as fats and oils from both animals and plants.
Besides, they are non-stick, thus conveying a better performance when making various chocolates.
Also, they are resistant to high temperatures thus can work in a wide range of temperature changes.
Most of the small-scale chocolate-making machines use this belt in cooling tunnels.
Should The Chocolate Conveyor Belt Material Be Food Grade?
It is an important factor to consider when you know the belt will contact the chocolate product.
In such instances, the material has to be food grade.
How Does Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine Work?
There are several steps that a small-scale chocolate-making machine will perform to make chocolate.
Here is how the machine operates:
Preparation Of Cocoa Beans
Cocoa beans plus other ingredients are the key ingredients that you will use to make chocolate.
Additional ingredients will enhance the flavor of these chocolate products.
In this phase, you will sift the cocoa beans then roast them.
After that, the machine will remove the shell from the roast cocoa beans.
This process will release the flesh that is inside, and this part undergoes further drying and sorting.
The cocoa beans have suitable pigments that are vital for chocolate-making.
Grinding The Nibs
Through grinding and heating, the machine will change the cocoa nibs to a cocoa concentrate.
This cocoa concentrate will exhibit a tart taste and is also known as unsweetened chocolate.
The machine will generate heat that comes from the frictional force that the grinding action exhibits.
This heat will force cocoa nibs to change from a dry solid substance into a slurry state.
Besides, this product is purer since the heat will burn fats that may be present.
Blending The Ingredients
Here, the machine will add more ingredients to enhance the taste of the slurry cocoa syrup.
Such ingredients include glucose, milk powder, and sugar.
The small-scale chocolate-making machine makes sure it achieves a homogenous mixture with good consistency.
Then, the machine will transport the mixture to another production phase involving molding.
These small-scale machines will automatically shape the chocolates to varying shapes and sizes effectively.
The machine has to be functional and in a good state to conduct the molding process.
First, you will input the processing parameters via the control panel to dictate the molding.
Then the machine will make the molds available after loading them on the mold loader for mold selection.
After that, the depositor will release the chocolate concentrate inside the molds after reaching the depositing area.
A suction pump is responsible for relaying the chocolate concentrate to the depositor.
These pistons will then release the chocolate concentrate into the molds.
Also, precise cam-profile setups will control how deep the fill will sit in the molds.
Since the machine operates automatically, you are sure to achieve high levels of accuracy.
Besides, you can add other ingredients such as nuts and raisins in this phase by using unique depositors.
A spreader will assist in spreading the deposits evenly across the mold.
After this, mold plates will turn over on flat surfaces with the assistance of pneumatic-controlled actuators.
After making the molds, since they are still hot, you will need to cool them.
If you pack the hot chocolate, the packaging material will shrink and affect the overall quality.
Several fans within the cooling tunnel assist in cooling the molds using forced induction.
Also, the fans are in specific positions that enhance even cooling.
As a control measure, temperature sensors will monitor the absolute temperature values as the cooling proceeds.
It ensures that all molds reach the right temperature before moving to the next production phase.
In this phase, a conveyor belt will come with systematic vibration capabilities.
It will pick up all the mold plates where the cooling tunnel ends.
The vibration in this conveyor belt will assist in distributing and position the chocolates in the molds evenly.
At the end of this conveyor system, pneumatic-powered actuators in the mold unloader will flip over the mold plates.
Here, the chocolates will undergo wrapping automatically.
The system will supply the wrapping material from the material hopper to cover the chocolates.
Some of the materials you can use to package chocolates include polythene, an aluminum film, and cellophane.
After that, packaging, according to weight or number, in boxes for distribution proceeds.
How Do You Optimize The Performance Of Small-Scale Chocolate Processing Equipment?
Here are some steps you can take to ensure the small-scale chocolate-making machine operates optimally:
- Take immediate action when you notice a malfunction, and do not wait till the maintenance date.
- Ensure you pay close attention to the operations and take note of malfunctions and odd responses.
- Make sure you conduct cleaning practices and lubricate all moving parts, such as gear systems.
- Follow the technical specifications to ensure the machine will operate as per the manufacturer’s parameters.
- Make sure you conduct maintenance practices such as repairing and/replacing worn-out or faulty parts.
- Also, ensure you use the correct raw materials, that is, the right quantity and size.
Can The Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine Mold Chocolate To Any Shape?
You can mold chocolates of many shapes and sizes with this machine.
Some of these shapes include:
- Chocolate bars
- Chocolate blocks
- Chocolate pistoles
- Chocolate callets
- Chocolate fèves
- Chocolate chips
What Material Is Used To Make Chocolate Molds For Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Chocolate molds are hollow frames which give the chocolates their shape once it cools and solidifies.
The materials that you can use to make this part with are:
Do Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine Have Printing Capability?
You can make prints on chocolates when using a small-scale chocolate-making machine.
For this, you need modified molding trays that have engravings with the information that you need on the chocolates.
The engravings will work the same way a rubber stamp works.
It means you will get the print work in an upright position on the chocolate product.
Printing will enable you to improve the appeal of the chocolate product.
It will also help you to distinguish your product from the competition.
Some information you can print include your logo or your brand name.
What Is The Production Capacity Of Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
The production capacity is normally between 50 and 200 kilograms per hour.
It is lower than that of medium or large-scale chocolate-making machines.
Are Small Scale Chocolate Manufacturing Machines Used In The Confectionery Industry only?
You can use small-scale chocolate manufacturing machines in industries such as:
- Food industries
- Nutraceutical industries
What Factors Determine The Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine Price?
Several factors will influence the price of this machine.
Semi-automatic small-scale chocolate-making machines are affordable than fully automatic small-scale chocolate-making machines.
When it comes to manufacturing these machines, there are a few companies that have a good reputation.
Because they have more experience and expertise, their machines will be costly.
Country Of Origin
Small-scale chocolate-making machines from China will cost less than those from other countries.
It is because several manufacturers offer a variety of products.
Small-scale chocolate-making machines have different production capacities.
If the production capacity is on the high end, the machine will cost more.
Some suppliers will give you discounts when you buy several small-scale chocolate-making machines at once.
Size Of The Machine
Small-scale chocolate-making machines come in different shapes and sizes.
The more portable and small ones will cost less.
If the machine has several beneficial features, it will cost more than those having fewer features.
Supply And Demand
When the demand is low, and the supply is high, the machines will cost less, and vice versa.
State Of The Machine
Second-hand small-scale chocolate-making machines cost less than brand new ones.
How Do You Maintain Small-Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Maintaining the machine will ensure it continues to be efficient and reliable while extending its durability.
Here are some steps to take to make sure the machine is in good condition:
- Conduct regular inspections to ensure all parts are in good working condition.
- Repair or replace all faulty parts immediately with new and genuine parts.
- Ensure you clean, dust, and wipe all parts of the machine at regular intervals to eliminate the buildup of contaminants.
- Use a blower to assist in the removal of dirt that is in hard-to-reach places.
- Lubricate all moving parts to minimize the wear and tear of the machine.
- Shut off the machine when conducting cleaning procedures to prevent electrical hazards.
- Make sure the electrical units have insulators to avoid hazards of fire and electric shocks.
- Also, check electrical connections to ensure there is no risk for shorts which may pose a huge risk.
How Do You Troubleshoot Small Scale Chocolate Molding Machine?
When you troubleshoot the machine, you will easily identify problems and come up with possible solutions.
You can troubleshoot
various issues; this may happen when the small-scale chocolate molding machine performs several products simultaneously.
Solve this by recalibrating the machine and make sure you use the correct mold for the application.
Chocolate Coat Not Sticking On Products
Solve this problem by evaluating the chocolate concentrates’ viscosity before you begin the molding process.
Crystallization In The Nozzles Of The Depositor
It will show when the nozzles clog and you experience an ineffective depositing.
Evaluate the fluidity of the chocolate mix or use emulsifiers to solve this issue.
Holes In Chocolates
It may mostly happen due to an inconsistent molding process.
Another possible cause is an irregular sealing of the cavities.
Solve this issue by monitoring the fluidity of the chocolate treacle.
Also, evaluate how the chocolate enters the molds.
Chocolate Sticking In Molds
It happens when the chocolate slurry has high temperatures before you deposit them in molds.
Also, it may happen due to long cooling periods.
Ensure the chocolate slurry has the right temperature and the cooling takes place as per the production parameters.
What Are The Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine Specifications?
There are several specifications to consider as they will affect your production.
These machines also have a range of production capacities despite them being small-scale.
Ensure you select the machine that will suit your production needs as it influences the cost and revenue forecast.
Size Of The Machine
Small-scale chocolate-making machines do come in various shapes and sizes.
This variation is evident in their length, width, and height.
The machine you select has to fit the work area that you currently have at your place.
These small-scale machines need a specific power requirement for them to operate optimally.
The machine you select has to match the power that you can supply for its operation.
Type Of Use
There are several small-scale chocolate-making machines from which you can select, and they have specific roles.
The type of application will influence the specification of the machine you will select.
What Is The Warranty Period For Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Most suppliers will offer a warranty period of at least 12 months after installation.
What Is The Best Material For Making Small Scale Chocolate Making Machine?
Stainless steel is the Best Material for making these machines.
Here are some benefits to using this material:
Even at extremely high or low temperature and pressure levels, stainless steel is robust and can keep its form.
It does not promote the growth of bacteria because of its hygienic qualities.
Moreover, stainless steel is low–maintenance material, and you can clean and maintain it with ease.
This material has an appealing, Beautiful, and functional appearance.
It can withstand corrosion, moisture, and rust, making it suitable for high–temperature usage.
The material is easy to recycle, thus can last for a long period and is good for the environment.
Material can come in different finishes, like soft or coarse, depending on the operating condition of fabrication.
Since you can bend, cut, assemble, and weld it, it is easy to make the machine in any design.
This material is tough and will not bend when under great weight.
It can handle extreme temperatures and various environmental elements.
Depending on your unique requirements and specifications, we offer a range of small scale chocolate making machines.
Contact SaintyCo today for all your small scale chocolate making machine needs.