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Vision Inspection Machine

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SaintyCo Vision Inspection Machine

A vision inspection machine is an automated device used in many industries and industrial plants to appraise products using images. Lighting, lenses, image sensors, vision processing, and communication components are among them. Vision inspection machines can automate complex or routine visual inspection activities using hardware and software algorithms. And accurately guide handling equipment throughout product assembly.

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SaintyCo is an all-encompassing technique that ensures consistent production capacity and results. A high-quality vision inspection machine manufacturing process can meet WHO, cGMP, GMP, 21CFR part II, and CE guidelines.

SaintyCo is specialized in supplying a wide range of vision inspection machines. As a skilled manufacturer, we only use the best and most durable materials when creating a functioning vision inspection machine. We can help you with all of your vision inspection machine needs so you can finish your project on time. Send us a message right now!

Vision Inspection Machine: The Ultimate Guide

Vision inspection machine is an automated appliance used in the image-based assessment of products in various industries and manufacturing plants.

In recent decades, vision inspection machines have experienced technological transformation.

These technologies include 2D and 3D vision inspection systems which have been widely used in modern industries.

It is the development of these technologies that assist in automated inspection and quality control.

As you will see later in this guide, the working principle is quite different from the other pharmaceutical inspection machines.

Vision inspection system

Vision Inspection System – Photo Courtesy: Acrifab

Benefits of Vision Inspection Systems

As a manufacturer, your greatest desire is to avail quality products for your customers.

With quality products, you are assured of a stable customer base.

This can be a pipe dream without proper inspection for errors and defects.

Let us have a look at some of the positive contributions of vision inspection systems.

Vision inspection system

Vision Inspection System – Photo Courtesy: RNA Automation

· Cost-Effectiveness

An automated surface inspection allows you to identify defects on your products and correct any flaws early enough.

This helps to prevent unnecessary losses for your company.

· Reduction in Errors

Human visual inspection is prone to errors.

Human beings easily get fatigued, especially when they work for long hours and inspect large production runs.

Automated vision inspection machine does not tire like humans and thus save you from such errors.

· Enhanced Accuracy

Just as we have mentioned in the previous benefit, human beings are prone to error.

However, when you engage a vision inspection machine, it is bound to stick to the command keyed in.

You can be assured of accuracy, which translates to quality products.

· Efficiency

The moment you engage a vision inspection machine, you can assign other duties to the initial human inspectors.

This results in overall efficiency in the industry as all the resources are fully engaged.

· Improved Reputation

In case there is a deformity in any of the products, the vision inspection machine brings it to your attention.

This allows you to correct such mistakes, thus guaranteeing your customer’s quality and protecting the reputation of your products.

Where to Use Vision Inspection Machines

From the benefits that we have enumerated, vision inspection machines are desirable for virtually all industries.

These machines are also flexibly designed, making them customizable to any of the sectors.

Let us explore some of the industries that use these systems.

Vision inspection machine interface

Vision Inspection Machine Interface – Photo Courtesy: Icube Technology

· Automotive Industry

In recent times, the world has witnessed the invention of self-driving cars.

These cars drive autonomously.

For this technology to be successful, it has to incorporate vision sensors and other relevant technologies.

· Retail Industry

Almost all modern retail outlets use barcode readers when making sales to their customers.

This cannot be possible without vision inspection systems.

Currently, retail outlets have embraced the use of autonomous checkout systems.

· Healthcare Industry

In the healthcare industry, vision inspection systems have been used in diagnostics. The system is able to capture a photograph of, say the skin, and analyze it.

It can then compare the condition of the skin with the data availed to it and unearth an anomaly.

This reduces the time required in diagnosing and treating a condition.

· Pharmaceutical Industry

Vision inspection systems have been used in the manufacture of drugs.

They aid in inspecting various aspects of drugs during manufacturing and packaging.

This helps in averting risks such as a drug overdose, as the system alerts the manufacturer in case of anomalies.

· Shipping and Transportation

Applications such as Google Maps use satellites to avail the real-time situations of roads.

It is also able to avail the distance between different locations and traffic intensity.

Further, this application also provides time estimates between two locations.

This kind of information is handy for logistics companies.

History of Machine Vision Inspection Technology

The past two decades have been marked by many innovations in vision inspection systems.

These innovations have contributed to the widespread use of vision inspection in various industries.

Adoption of these machines can be attributed to their flexibility and automation.

These features enable manufacturers to detect defects and sort out products faster than human labor.

It is vital that you learn the strides that have been made to realize this achievement.

In the 1950s, Gibson developed two-dimensional imaging that could be used in recognizing statistical patterns.

This was made possible by the optical flow computation which he arrived at by developing theory mathematical models.

In the 1960s, Larry Roberts’ Ph.D. thesis at Michigan Institute of Technology insinuated at 3D machine vision.

It pointed at the probability of extracting 3D geometric information from 2D views.

This informed more research at MIT’s artificial intelligence lab.

Other research institutions later followed suit.

In the 1970s, Michigan Institute of Technology’s Artificial Intelligence Lab started offering a course on Machine Vision.

This roped in more researchers with interest in the studies, which would translate into a breakthrough in 1978.

David Marr made it possible to understand a scene by the use of computer vision.

It was viewed as a bottom-up approach as it would start with a 2D sketch.

This would then be built on using a computer to get a final 3D image.

In the 1980s, machine vision as a concept attracted more researches and more concerted efforts.

This led to the emergence of new theories.

The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) was adopted.

It would verify letters, symbols, and numbers.

Towards the end of the decade, smart cameras were invented, and all these systems were adopted in various industries.

In the 1990s, there was the widespread adoption of machine visions in manufacturing industries.

This called for the establishment of the machine vision industry, leading to the emergence of over 100 vision inspection systems-selling companies.

The 1990s also saw the development of LED lights that would be used in the vision inspection systems.

There were also remarkable improvements in the sensor functions and the control design.

These improvements gave vision inspection systems more abilities.

It is in the same period also that the cost of the machines reduced remarkably.

Machine Vision Today – What’s Different

Since the onset of the new century in the year 2000, vision inspection systems have experienced many improvements.

Unlike in the previous decades, today, 3D vision systems are more affordable.

These systems are characterized by thermal imaging, slope measurement, and the ability to scan quick running products.

3D vision inspection machine for tire manufacturing

3D Vision Inspection Machine for Tire Manufacturing  – Photo Courtesy: SICKUSA

These new abilities have not hampered researchers from coming up with new inventions in the sector.

The vision inspection industry still faces some challenges.

Recently, most researchers have faulted the “bottom-up” approach that was developed by Marr.

These researchers feel that the framework has challenges in speed, accuracy, and resolution.

Bottom up approach of cognition

 Bottom Up Approach of cognition – Photo Courtesy: Replicated Typo

They have, therefore, come up with alternative approaches such as top-down and heterogeneous, which mitigate challenges in a “bottom-up” approach.

Another theory developed is the purposive vision.

In this framework, complete 3D object models are not needed as a prerogative for the achievement of machine vision goals.

It further proposes goal-driven algorithms.

The recent decades have also witnessed tremendous improvements in the development of Gesture-Based Interfaces.

This allows operators to instruct computers and machinery through thoughts and gestures.

This deviates from the traditional interfaces where one had to use keyboards and other input devices.

Image Processing Technique in Vision Inspection Machines

Machine vision

Machine Vision – Photo courtesy: Wikimedia

Vision inspection systems have taken up the role of human visual inspection in virtually all industries.

Some of these industries have used vision inspection systems in robots to achieve quality.

This enables the robots to see and identify different objects.

In essence, the system gives robots the ability to collect reflective light from an object.

From this reflection, the robot can then process an image and perform the intended action.

This is made possible by the vision systems which use a number of electronic devices and hardware systems.

You should understand how these machines work.

Usually, a bunch of pixels is stored in the robot’s controlling unit memory.

These pixels aid the vision system in the robot in identifying objects through the formation of an electronic image.

For every pixel, there is an assigned binary number.

Each one of the binary numbers corresponds to specific wavelength and intensity in the light spectrum.

The convergence of the binary numbers results in the formation of an electronic image in the robot’s controlling unit.

In the robots, there are a number of classifications for the vision systems used.

This categorization is informed by the color of the objects.

The first category is the binary image which consists of black and white images.

The second category is grey-colored images while the third comprises colored images, which have red, green, or blue bases.

The formation of electronic images is dependent on these categories.

If by any chance an electronic image formed cannot fit in these categories, then the nearest category is selected.

It is also essential that you learn parts of the process.

All vision systems consist of a camera, a monitoring system, and other essential hardware and software.

Image identification is usually classified into three main parts.

Without these stages, identification of the image can never be successful.

Image Processing in Vision Inspection Machine

This is the first stage, where the formation of an image to be used for analysis in the later stages occurs.

This is achievable through a number of methods.

It can be through image analysis and histogram, which will aid in the simplification, identification, modification, and enhancement of an image.

Threshold Stage in Vision Inspection Machine

This second stage allows for the classification of an image into assorted categories before comparison with the pixel stored in the database.

After comparison, the pixels are aligned, leading to the formation of an image.

Connectivity Path in Vision Inspection Machine

The process in this third stage connects similar pixels.

Classifying these pixels together is based on color and texture region.

From these processes, an electronic image is conceived, paving the way for the necessary action.

Types of Vision Inspection Machines

You can choose from any of the following vision inspection machines:

1D Vision Inspection Machines

1D Vision system

 1D Vision System – Photo Courtesy: Cognex

1D vision inspection systems are machines that analyze digital signal one line at a time.

This deviates from other inspection machines that can look at a whole picture once and analyze up to ten acquired lines.

1D vision inspection machines are, hence, used in inspecting materials manufactured in a continuous process.

These materials include paper, plastics, metals, and other roll goods.

Advantages of ID Vision Inspection Systems

  • Enhanced Product Quality

Just like any other vision inspection machine, 1D vision inspection systems assist in quality control.

They help in detecting defects which you can correct before releasing the products to the market, leading to flawless products.

  • Increased Productivity

Although you have the option of using human inspectors, they are bound to get fatigued as they work.

The 1D vision inspection system guarantees you longer working hours and quicker turn-around time, thus increasing production levels.

  • Reduced Costs

With a 1D vision inspection machine, you will be able to cut on production costs.

Working without the machine implies hiring many employees to perform its tasks.

This contributes to a bloated wage bill for your company.

However, with the machine, you will spend less on labor while producing more and accurately within a shorter time frame.

  • Reduced floor space

Since you do not need more employees, there is no need for bigger floor space.

You only need the space that will be occupied by the vision inspection system.

Reduced floor space implies savings on production costs.

Drawbacks of 1D Vision Inspection Systems

Limited in scope compared to the other alternatives

Unlike other vision inspection systems, 1D inspection systems have a very limited working scope.

Unlike 2D and 3D vision inspection systems, a 1D system cannot analyze a whole picture.

It only analyzes one line at a time, making it slower and unusable in some industries.

  • High Installation Costs

Just like any other vision inspection machine, the 1D vision inspection system is expensive to install in your firm.

However, with time, the cost-reduction impact of the machine usually outweighs this weakness.

  • Specialization

Operating 1D vision inspection system calls for specialization.

You will have to either train an operator or hire someone with the requisite skills to operate it.

  • High Operating Costs

There are high operating costs involved in 1D vision inspection systems.

These include costs on electrical power bills and regular maintenance for effective operation.

Components and Parts of ID Vision Inspection Systems

The success of a vision system is due to the use of certain critical components.

For 1D vision systems to work effectively, the components must be used correctly.

These include lighting, lens, image sensor, vision processing, and communications components.

The lighting is crucial as it ensures that the features to be inspected are conspicuous for the camera.

The lens captures the image and thenceforth presents it to the sensor in the form of light.

On receiving the image, the sensor turns it into a digital image.

The processor then analyzes this image.

Algorithms used in vision processing then review the image and obtain the needed details.

It does the required inspection and decides on what should be done to the product.

Communication on what should be done is accomplished through discrete O/I signal.

Alternatively, data is sent over a serial connection to a device that either records the information or uses it.

Vision components, including lighting modules, sensors, and processors, can be bought off the shelf and assembled.

Alternatively, you can purchase a system that has already been integrated.

Let us have a look at some of these components:

Lighting

This is an essential component of 1D vision inspection machines.

Without proper lighting, the system will not be able to illuminate the target, leading to loss of information and productivity.

There, thus, has to be a light source that is linked up with the camera.

These lights differ considerably depending on the purpose.

Lenses

These capture images and deliver them to the image sensors on the camera.

They usually have varying optical quality, which informs pricing.

There are two main types of lenses that are used: interchangeable lenses and fixed lenses.

With the right lenses, your 1D vision inspection machine is able to acquire quality images.

Vision Processing

This is a method for obtaining information from a digital image.

It is performed by software and involves some steps. In the first step, the image is obtained from the sensor.

The software then establishes the unique attributes of the image, measures it, and makes a comparison with the prototype.

This informs decision-making and, the results obtained get communicated.

Though not a physical component, the software configures all the operations of your 1D vision inspection machine.

Without it, it will be impossible to make decisions for the company.

Image Sensor

This is found within the 1D vision inspection machine camera.

For your camera to take images effectively, it must have effective image sensors.

These sensors convert light into electrical signals.

This results in digital images which are a collection of pixels.

When the lighting is weak, then you should expect dark pixels.

Bright light, on the other hand, results in brighter pixels.

Ensure that the camera got the best sensor resolution for the application.

With high resolution, the details of the image are bound to be clearer and measurements accurate.

Check on the size of the object and the inspection tolerance to determine the needed resolution.

Communications

You could have bought most components of your 1D vision inspection machine off-the-shelf.

You must ensure that all these components are compatible with other elements of the machine effectively.

Communication in this system is done by discrete I/O signal.

Alternatively, data can be sent through a serial connection to a device that is logging information or using it.

Working Principle of 1D Vision Inspection Systems

Vision inspection machine

Vision Inspection Machine – Photo Courtesy: Control Design

In 1D vision inspection systems, each digital signal line is analyzed individually.

This deviates from looking at the whole picture at once.

This working principle distinguishes it from other vision inspection systems, which analyze whole images.

This explains its preference in continuous process industries such as paper, metals, and plastics industries.

2D Vision Inspection Systems

Vision inspection system

Vision Inspection System – Photo Courtesy: COGNEX

This system uses two-dimensional maps (X, Y) in which the reflected intensity is captured and processed.

The process involves comparing the levels of intensity variations.

Traditionally, this system has been used in various applications, including barcode readers and 2printing verification.

It is commonly referred to as automatic inspection.

There are a number of 2D machine vision installations.

These include ID readers and smart cameras. Others include smart vision sensors and multi-camera vision systems.

Advantages of 2D Vision Inspection Systems

  • Higher Quality

2D vision inspection systems ensure that manufacturing industries produce quality products.

It achieves this by conducting inspections, taking measurements, and comparing the measurements with the prototype.

This ensures that the products are of quality and meet the set standards.

  • Increased Productivity

2D vision inspection machine also increases productivity as it is quicker, effective, and more reliable.

  • Production Flexibility

2D vision inspection machine is also flexible hence streamlines the production process.

They can take measurements or verify operations.

This multi-dimensional approach to production guarantees flexibility.

  • Less Machine Downtime

2D vision inspection systems are also essential in reducing the setup time.

It has a provision for setting changeover time well in advance. This minimizes the time spent in transitioning to a different task.

  • Complete Information

In this error of 2D vision inspection machines, you can get computerized feedback from manual tasks.

This helps a great deal in decision making.

Drawbacks of 2D Vision Inspection Systems

Can’t Measure Shape

2D sensors are incapable of supporting measurements related to shape.

They cannot measure attributes such as object flatness and part volumes.

They are also unable to specify differences between objects that have the same color.

  • Vulnerable to Variable Lighting Conditions

Usually, lighting is supposed to determine edge locations and measurement accuracy.

Lighting variations across the sensor’s field of view will result in measurement errors.

This calls for additional techniques to mitigate these effects.

  • Limited Contrast Compensation

2D sensors are also dependent on measuring of objects’ contrast.

This disables them from measuring black objects on black backgrounds.

They are also unable to distinct part features in the absence of special lighting.

It is this special lighting that can help expose the defined edge.

  • Sensitive to Object Movement

Component movement is likely to cause errors when using 2D sensors.

This implies that you will have to precisely fix the object on the optical axis to avoid this error.

You can also use scale-invariant feature detection, or use large telecentric optics.

Without these, you won’t be able to remove the effects.

 Components and Parts of 2D Vision Inspection Systems

For 2D vision inspection system to function effectively, all the essential components have to be in place.

Just as any other vision inspection system, it needs lighting, lenses, image sensors, a software, and a communication mechanism.

All these components are available off-the-shelf.

Alternatively, you can buy a compact machine.

Let us discuss each of the components:

Lighting

This is arguably the most crucial component of the 2D vision inspection machine.

Without proper lighting of the target image, there will be a loss of information and the end result.

The system must have a light source, which works in conjunction with the camera.

There are a number of lightings used in this system.

These include backlighting, which targets the silhouette of the target.

Bar lighting, on the other hand, lights up the edge of the target for effective illumination. Others are darkfield lighting and diffuse on-axis lighting.

Lenses

2D vision inspection systems use these to capture the image.

It then transmits the image to the image sensor on the camera. The optical quality influences the price of the lens.

When you are buying 2D inspection system parts, have it in mind that the most expensive lens is usually the best.

You have two options when selecting a lens: the interchangeable lenses and the fixed lenses.

The interchangeable lenses are usually C-mounts or CS-mounts.

Ensure that you get the right combination of lens and extension for excellent performance and quality images.

Fixed lenses, on the other hand, use autofocus.

These can either be mechanically adjusted lens or liquid lens which focuses automatically.

Note that the fixed lenses have a fixed field of view and distance.

Software

Vision processing is reliant on software.

This involves a number of processes.

After an image has been obtained from the sensor, specific features are captured, including the measurements.

These are then compared with the prototype specifications availed initially to the 2D vision inspection machine.

The machine arrives at a decision and communicates the results.

Without the algorithms provided for by the software, this can never be possible.

This makes the software an integral component.

Image Sensor

The image sensor is found within the camera and serves to enable the camera to capture well-illuminated images. Image sensors are essential in converting light to electrical signals.

With higher resolution, you are sure to have good image quality.

This also translates to more detailed images and more accurate measurements.

Communications

A number of vision inspection systems can be obtained off the shelf.

These components have to coordinate and connect with other elements conveniently.

This is usually achieved by using a discrete I/O signals.

Alternatively, data is sent over a serial connection to a device that uses the information.

You should ensure that the I/O points are connected to a programmable logic controller.

This uses the information to manage a work cell or any other indicator that might be used to activate various commands.

Working Principle of 2D Vision Inspection Systems

In the past, 2D machine visions used digital cameras to capture images of objects.

However, 2D machine visions currently use two-dimensional maps (X, Y) of reflected intensity.

These attributes are captured and subsequently processed.

In the processing stage, variations in intensity are assessed.

Line Scan or Area Scans Vision Inspection Machines

Line scan vision inspection machine

Line Scan Vision Inspection Machine – Photo Courtesy: Teledyn

Line scan technology is used in capturing images of broad objects with a single pass.

When using this technology, a number of images are captured and brought together, leading to a complete image.

The camera used in this inspection machine usually has a single row of pixel sensors.

This deviates from other systems that use a matrix of pixel sensors.

The obtained lines are fed into a computer, which links them up to make an image.

This makes them suitable for high-speed processing and in fast-moving conveyor line applications.

If you are inspecting a cylindrical image, you will have to use several single line scan cameras.

Advantages of Line Scan or Area Scans Vision Inspection Machines

Line scan makes imaging of cylindrical components tenable.

Line scan cameras are able to capture the same position across the cylinder as it rotates.

This generates the image of the entire surface without distortion.

Distortions are more likely when imaging curved surfaces using area scan cameras.

Line scan vision inspection machines also help in detecting defects on the surface.

These defects include dents, pits, scratches, and holes.

Line scan machines also help in unwrapping labels.

This makes codes readable to a human eye.

The compact nature of line scan vision inspection machines gives them the ability to fit in small spaces.

This explains their use in viewing the bottom of conveyor belts through the rollers.

Line scanners are also able to expose new images as the previous image transfers its data.

This is attributed to faster pixel readout, which is usually faster compared to camera exposure.

Drawbacks of Line Scan or Area Scans Vision Inspection Machines

Line scan vision inspection machines are susceptible to misalignment.

In the case of total misalignment, the line scan vision inspection machine introduces cross pixel blurring.

It is also sensitive to speed mismatching.

If the speed is not controlled, then there is the likelihood of inter-pixel blurring. It hence requires encoder synchronization.

It is also intolerant to speed variation during the acquiring period.

These include both the run-up and run-down periods.

Components and Parts of Line Scan or Area Scans Vision Inspection Machines

There are a number of components required for a line scan vision inspection machine to operate effectively.

Just like for the other types, the components here include lighting, lenses, image sensors, a processor, and a communication mechanism.

Lighting is usually crucial in illuminating target objects for the inspection.

It exposes all the parts for the cameras.

In the absence of good lighting, there is a likelihood of losing information, which implies an error in the outcome.

The light source must be connected to the camera.

The lenses in line scan inspection machine capture images.

This image is transmitted to the image sensor on the camera.

The price of the lenses usually depends on the optical quality that they offer.

There are two categories of lenses: interchangeable lenses and fixed lenses.

Processing of the vision usually relies on the software.

Once an image has been captured from the sensor, its features and measurements are captured.

These features and measurements are matched with the prototype specifications availed to the line scan inspection machine.

The machine then communicates the results attained from the process.

This process is not attainable without the algorithms used by the software.

Therefore, though intangible, the software is an essential component without which desired results cannot be achieved.

The camera also has an image sensor, which enables it to capture well-illuminated images inline scan inspection.

Sensors convert light to electrical signals, where the higher the resolution, the higher the image quality.

This is because the images produced are detailed, and the measurements accurate.

Communications

Again, whereas all vision inspection components can be bought off-the-shelf, it is important to ensure that all the components bought are compatible.

This machine, like the ones we have already discussed, depends on discrete I/O signal for communication.

You can also consider sending signals over a serial connection to a device that uses the generated information.

This also involves ensuring that I/O points are connected to a programmable logic controller.

Doing this ensures that codes are assigned to different results during the inspection process.

Working Principle of Line Scan or Area Scans Vision Inspection Machines

Line scan technology uses a single row of pixel sensors as opposed to a matrix of pixel sensors.

This translates into capturing images of broad objects with a single pass.

The images captured are then brought together to form a complete image.

This gives them the ability to inspect products in high-speed processing.

3D Vision Inspection Machine

3D Vision Inspection Machine

 3D Vision Inspection Machine

Lately, the 3D vision inspection system is the most preferred technology.

It offers three-dimensional inspection and can help measure complex free-formed surfaces.

The operations here are based on geometric and angle-based processes.

Laser scanning based triangulation is the most widely used method in 3D imaging.

Unlike 2D technology that only captures contrasts, 3D captures the shape of the object.

This vision technology can also measure geometric features on a surface with disregard to surface color.

Advantages of 3D Vision Inspection Machine

Low Cost

3D vision systems are relatively cheap since they can be bought off-the-shelf.

They are also easy to use and to implement.

There have been significant improvements of CMOS imagers, making the technology strong, fast and reliable.

Operational Ease

3D vision inspection machine is very easy to set up and to use.

There is also no need for special arrangements for lighting.

Fast and Robust

3D systems also guarantee speed and reliability.

This is powered by high-speed CMOS sensors which are usually combined with FPGA.

Wide Range of Resolutions

3D technology offers you a wide range of resolutions.

You will not have to change the whole processing design.

Instead, you can simply adjust the optical and mechanical designs.

Accuracy

In 3D vision inspection machines, you will be sure of accuracy and repeatability.

All you need to do is to have proper calibrations and optics in place.

Ease of Integration

Profilers in 3D vision inspection machines are more reliable.

This explains the preference for these machines in different industries.

Ease of Expansion

3D vision technology has an architecture that allows for the addition of processing blocks.

This helps in increasing the capabilities of the systems.

One example of added processing intelligence is AI.

Other improved capabilities include pixel processing and smart sensors.

Vibration Tolerance

3D vision inspection machines are able to tolerate vibrations.

It is able to reduce vibrations as it detects noise emanating from the laser’s speckle.

Drawbacks of 3D Vision Inspection Machine

Occlusions

Laser triangulation usually looks at angles; however, occlusions are always a hindrance.

Occlusions are shadows that result from the positioning angle of the profiler.

This is caused by geometric triangulation.

You have the option of using two lasers and two cameras to mitigate this effect, but this inflates the costs.

Specular Reflections

These are the nuisances of 3D systems.

This reflection is similar to light reflection on a mirror or a shiny surface.

There have been numerous efforts channeled towards correcting specular regulations but without much success.

Laser Speckle

The laser usually generates noise, which has a negative effect on the resolution of the systems.

Dependence on Sensor Performance

3D visual inspection machines depend on the performance of the sensors.

This limits the speed of 3D systems and the overall performance.

Components and Parts of 3D Vision Inspection Machine

The effective functioning of a 3D vision system is dependent on its components.

The components of this machine include lighting, lenses, image sensors, operative software, and a communication mechanism.

It is vital that you understand each of these components in detail.

Lighting

This component is essential in 3D vision inspection machine for proper illumination.

It enables the camera to visualize the object being inspected.

3D vision inspection systems cannot work effectively without proper lighting.

Poor lighting on the image is likely to result in loss of information needed for decision making.

This will definitely result in errors hence beating the purpose of the machine.

Your 3D vision inspection machine must be having a lighting source.

This lighting source must work in conjunction with the camera.

Lenses

Your 3D vision inspection machine must have lenses to capture images.

The lens further has the responsibility of transmitting the image to the sensor on the camera.

The optical quality influences the pricing of the lens.

When dealing with interchangeable lenses, it is imperative that you get a perfect lens and extension match.

The second category is fixed lenses, which use autofocus technology.

Some have mechanically adjusted lenses while others have liquid lenses that focus automatically.

Both categories of fixed lenses have a fixed field of view and distance.

Processor

Vision processing cannot be possible without a processor.

This is usually coordinative software that ensures that all the due stages are adhered to.

It enables the 3D vision inspection machine to capture an image and obtain its features.

The measurements are then obtained.

This is subsequently compared to the specifications of the sample availed to the machine before the results are communicated.

All these processes are a product of software algorithms.

This demonstrates the importance of the software (processor) as an intangible component.

Image Sensor

This is found in the camera. Its main role is ensuring that the camera captures well-illuminated images.

They are essential in the light conversion process, which results in electrical signals.

With high resolution, you are more likely to get a quality image.

It is the image sensors that determine the level of accuracy of images in 3D vision inspection

Communications

You can purchase these 3D vision components off-the-shelf. Only ensure that the components are compatible for an excellent performance.

Communication is enabled by the use of discrete I/O, which you have to connect to a programmable logic controller.

The relayed information is used to manage the work cell.

Working Principle of 3D Vision Inspection Machine

3D vision inspection systems usually use multiple cameras on either one or more laser displacement sensors.

The mounting of different cameras on different locations, which is also referred to as triangulation, enables these systems to work effectively.

This makes it possible to capture images in 3D spaces.

Difference between Machine Vision and Computer Vision

Machine vision and computer vision are two overlapping technologies.

However, there are a few differences that you can notice between the two.

  • The first difference between these two is interdependence. Computer visions do not depend on machine visions. This intimates that computer vision can operate autonomously.

On the other hand, machine vision cannot be operated without computer vision. It uses computer vision algorithms to perform effectively.

  • Secondly, while computer vision is a technique, machine vision is for precise industrial application.
  • Machine vision views are known objects, which can be observed and predicted. However, computer visions deal with unknown objects and uncontrolled and unpredictable activities.

Vision Inspection for Quality Control in Production & Packaging

Vision inspection machines are essential in ensuring that standards are adhered to.

This is achieved by the visualization of errors, which are corrected before the products are released to the market.

In the industries, the visual appearance of the products, packaging integrity, and provision of valid information is very critical.

This cannot be possible without a visual inspection machine, especially owing to the required production speed.

Using vision inspection machines, hence, ensures efficiency in production and minimizes errors.

This makes it an effective quality control mechanism.

Conclusion

Vision inspection machines have transformed quality control in virtually all industries.

They have made the turn-around time shorter and the products better, and have lowered production costs by reducing the labor requirement.

Depending on the product you are manufacturing and your financial capabilities, you can pick on the different machines that exist.

These include 1D, 2D, and 3D vision inspection machines.

You can also use line scan and area scan vision inspection machines.

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